If no sperm is detected in the semen, it might still be possible to find healthy sperm in the testes or the tubes with surgical sperm retrieval (SSR).
PESA (percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration) treatment may be appropriate where the cause of infertility is obstructive.
Where the cause is thought to be a problem with sperm production then micro TESE (microsurgical testicular sperm extraction) can be used. This is where individual areas of the testicle are inspected under a high-tech microscope to identify those tubules that are dilated and thus more likely to contain sperm. These tubules are then examined to look for and retrieve sperm.
A consultation with a specialist in male fertility will provide a chance to find out more about these options.